1,4 dioxane treatment

While 1,4 dioxane is present in low concentration in many commonplace products (cosmetics and personal care products like shampoos, deodorants toothpaste), it is also a low-risk carcinogen, based on research ion rates and mice.

The material is water-soluble and chemically stable, which makes it difficult to remove from a water supply, once present.  Currently, the most effective treatment is an advanced oxidation process that combines hydrogen peroxide or ozone with UV light which extracts hydrogen atoms from the molecule and causes it to decompose.  The process is currently in use in the Orange County Water District in California for wastewater reuse treatment.